24-Hour Crisis Hotline: (877)SAFEGBC or (877)723-3422 Mental Health & Substance Abuse Issues

6502 Nursery Drive, Suite 100
Victoria, TX 77904
(361)575-0611
(800)421-8825

Child & Adolescent Development: Overview
Resources
Basic InformationMore InformationLatest News
Coping Support Assists Parents of Hospitalized ChildrenYoung Breakfast Skippers Lack Vital NutrientsA Violent Environment Can Wreck Kids' GradesSleep Duration Inversely Linked to Risk Markers of T2DM in KidsDo Pets Really Boost Kids' Health?Rotavirus Vaccine Cuts U.S. Peds Gastroenteritis HospitalizationsRotavirus Vaccine Cut Kids' Hospitalization, Medical CostsBy Age 12, Poor May Show Signs of Heart Risks AheadHealth Tip: Childhood Obesity Can Trigger Adult ProblemsDecline in Kids' Ear Infections Linked to Pneumococcal VaccinePicky Eater? It Might Just Be Your Child's PersonalityPrenatal Exposure to Certain Flame Retardants Linked to Lower IQsHealth Tip: Protect Your Kids From LeadKnow the Signs of ConcussionSurgeons Warn of Trampolines' Down SideVision Problems Can Harm Kids' Development, GradesTime to Catch Up on Reading, Writing … and Routine ShotsU.S. Kids Overdosing on Dietary SupplementsJust a Few Vaccine Refusers Could Endanger ManyDoes Your Child Really Have a Food Allergy?Donor-Sperm Kids No Different From Their Peers: StudyHigh-Dose Vitamin D May Not Curb Kids' ColdsHealth Tip: Check the Water Before SwimmingDespite Warnings, Kids Are Still Dying in Hot CarsLink for Maternal Antidepressant, Kids' Brain Health QuestionedToo Few Children Get EpiPen When Needed: StudyHealth Tip: Take Care of Kids Exercising in Summer HeatHow to Prevent Future Couch PotatoesSugar Intake During Pregnancy Tied to Allergy in OffspringThe Neighborhood Sandbox: A Breeding Ground for GermsRisks Linked to Soft Contacts No Higher for Children Than AdultsSmoking On the Rise in Movies Aimed at Young: StudyBullying Takes Financial Toll on U.S. School DistrictsSwimming Lessons: For Starters, Watch Out for Germs in the WaterHow to Keep Your Kids Out of the ER This SummerIs Your Child's 'Penicillin Allergy' Real?Health Tip: When Adults Offer Kids FoodHealth Tip: Practice Drowning Prevention at HomeCommunity Intervention May Aid Fight Against Childhood ObesityGetting Kids in the Habit of Healthy EatingHealth Tip: Rewarding Kids Without FoodDo Older Dads Produce Brainy Boys?USPSTF Concludes Screening for Obesity Beneficial for ChildrenFirearms Kill or Wound 7,000 U.S. Children AnnuallyGuns Kill or Wound 7,000 U.S. Kids a Year: ReportTime for Some Summer Sun Safety TipsHealth Tip: Applying Sunscreen on ChildrenMany Preemies Don't Struggle in SchoolHealth Tip: When Your Child Won't Eat LunchResearchers Target Zolmitriptan Dosing for Pediatric Migraine
Questions and AnswersLinks
Related Topics

ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Childhood Mental Disorders and Illnesses
Child Development & Parenting: Infants (0-2)
Child Development & Parenting: Early (3-7)

Youth With Type 2 Diabetes Often Face Complications

HealthDay News
by By Serena Gordon
HealthDay Reporter
Updated: Feb 28th 2017

new article illustration

TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Young people with type 2 diabetes are much more likely to show signs of complications from the blood sugar disease than those who have type 1 diabetes, a new study shows.

While the researchers found that about three in four teens and young adults with type 2 diabetes had at least one complication, only one in three with type 1 diabetes did.

Why?

"The one big difference in the kids with type 1 and type 2 was obesity. When we controlled the data for obesity, there was no longer an excess of complications for type 2 diabetes," explained lead author Dr. Dana Dabelea. She's a professor of epidemiology and pediatrics at the Colorado School of Public Health, in Aurora.

The one bright spot in the findings was that the complications were mostly in the "early or subclinical" stages, Dabelea added.

That means there's still time to reverse the damage, she explained.

Both types of diabetes have been on the rise, according to the researchers. The obesity epidemic has played a significant role in the increase in type 2 diabetes in both adults and children.

People with type 2 diabetes first develop insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use sugars from food as fuel. When the body is insulin-resistant, it doesn't use insulin efficiently. Because insulin isn't helping sugar into cells to be used as energy, sugar stays in the bloodstream, causing blood sugar levels to rise.

In response, the pancreas -- the organ that makes insulin -- produces more and more insulin to try to bring blood sugar levels down. Eventually, the pancreas can't keep up with the demand, and type 2 diabetes develops.

There are a number of medicines available for adults with type 2 diabetes, Dabelea said, but treatment is more limited in young people with type 2 diabetes. They can make lifestyle changes and take insulin and the drug metformin, which makes the body more sensitive to insulin.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. Weight doesn't play a role in causing type 1 diabetes. Instead, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. So many cells are destroyed that the pancreas makes little to no insulin.

To survive, people with type 1 diabetes must take multiple daily insulin injections or receive insulin through a tiny catheter placed underneath the skin that attaches to an insulin pump. But, unlike people with type 2 diabetes, their bodies can efficiently use insulin.

The study included more than 1,700 young people with type 1 diabetes and nearly 300 with type 2 diabetes. They were treated in five different locations in the United States between 2002 and 2015.

The average age of the those with type 1 diabetes was 18, and three-quarters were white. For those with type 2 diabetes, the average age was about 22, and only about one-quarter were white, according to the report.

Both groups had diabetes for about eight years. Their blood sugar levels were similar, the study showed.

The researchers found that almost 20 percent of the type 2 group had early signs of possible kidney disease, as did 6 percent of those with type 1 diabetes.

Dr. William Cefalu, chief science, medical and mission officer for the American Diabetes Association (ADA), pointed out that a number of factors can affect test results for early kidney disease, and this study only looked at one test.

The study also found that 9 percent of those with type 2 diabetes had early signs of eye disease, as did nearly 6 percent of the type 1 group.

Arterial stiffness was seen in 47 percent of those with type 2 diabetes and less than 12 percent with type 1 diabetes. Twenty-two percent of those with type 2 diabetes and 10 percent of those with type 1 diabetes had high blood pressure.

Dabelea said those two complications were the most concerning, because they may not be as reversible with good disease management as the other complications.

Factors other than obesity may play a role in the differences between the two groups of patients, the researchers noted. For example, type 2 may be a more aggressive disease in children. It's also possible that the limited treatment options for type 2 diabetes affected the rate of complications.

Dabelea also noted that kids with type 2 diabetes were a more diverse population. They may have come from economically disadvantaged families with less access to health care.

Cefalu said he wasn't "really surprised by the study's findings, but the statistics are startling, given that these are youth and adolescents."

He said parents and physicians should see this study as "a call to action to have a heightened awareness that complications are present at a high rate."

Blood sugar management can help stave off these complications. Losing weight is helpful for kids with type 2 diabetes, and regular physical activity can make a big difference. Make sure your child's blood pressure is being measured, and that their kidney health is tested, Cefalu added.

Also, get your child's eyes checked by an ophthalmologist, Cefalu suggested. For kids with type 2 diabetes, annual eye exams should begin right after diagnosis. For those with type 1 diabetes, eye exams are recommended starting five years after diagnosis, according to the ADA.

Cefalu also noted that parents and providers need to keep in mind that there are treatments available for diabetes complications.

The findings were published Feb. 28 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

More information

Learn about preventing diabetes complications from the American Diabetes Association.