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ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Basic Information
Childhood ADHD OverviewADHD Discoveries and ControversiesCauses of ADHD in ChildrenADHD or Another Condition?Diagnosis of ADHD in ChildrenADHD Treatment in ChildrenFamily and Personal SupportsAdult ADHD OverviewDiagnosis of Adult ADHDAdult ADHD TreatmentADHD Resources and References
More InformationTestsLatest NewsQuestions and AnswersLinks
Related Topics

Bipolar Disorder
Child & Adolescent Development: Overview
Learning Disorders
Child Development & Parenting: Infants (0-2)
Child Development & Parenting: Early (3-7)

Additional Resources & Reading List

Margaret V. Austin, Ph.D., edited by C. E. Zupanick, Psy.D.


ADHD and Mental Health Guides. Child Mind Institute. Retrieved from http://www.childmind.org/en/health/disorder-guide/ [Editor's Note: no longer available]

Austin, M. Psychologist and author website: www.margaretaustinphd.com

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsors the National Resource Center, a program of CHADD - Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Their Web site has links to information for people with ADHD and their families. To find out who to speak to in your area, you can contact the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities by logging on to http://www.parentcenterhub.org/  or calling 1-800-695-0285.

Filled with tools you can use, CHADD's ADHD Toolkit is a virtual roadmap that will address many of your ADHD concerns, including understanding ADHD and getting the support that you need...all in one place. - See more at https://chadd.org/about-adhd/overview/

Healthline. Best blogs. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/adhd/best-blogs-of-the-year#2

Preschoolers and ADHD. National Resource Center on AD/HD. Retrieved from https://www.addrc.org/preschoolers-and-adhd/

The National Resources Center operates a call center with trained staff to answer questions about ADHD. The number is 1-800-233-4050.

Tartakovsky, M. Living with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Downloaded from Psych Central on March 5, 2015. https://psychcentral.com/adhd/living-with-adhd#1

Understanding ADHD. (n.d.). National Resource Center on AD/HD. Retrieved from hhttps://chadd.org/about/about-nrc/

Alternative Treatments

Cognitive Training

Play Attention Sheer Genius. What is it? Retrieved from http://www.playattention.com/faq/1874-what-is-it


Treating ADHD with Massage Therapy. (2014). Pacific College of Oriental Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.pacificcollege.edu/news/blog/2014/12/22/treating-adhd-with-massage-therapy

Ulrich, C. (n.d.). Helping Children Find Focus: Massage Calms ADHD Kids. Retrieved from http://www.massagetherapy.com/articles/index.php/article_id/929/Helping-Children-Find-Focus  [Editor's note: no longer available]


Alhambra, M. A., Fowler, T. P., & Alhambra, A. A. (1995). EEG biofeedback: A new treatment option for ADD/ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), 39-43.

Arns, M, de Ridder, S, Strehl, U, Breteler, M, & Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(3) 180-189.

Monastra, V., Lynn, S., Linden, M., Lubar, J., Gruzelier, J., & LaVaque, T. (2005). Electroencephalographic Biofeedback in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Retrieved from http://www.braincorenj.com/research/add_monastra.pdf


Achievement Tests

Woodcock Johnson IV. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodcock%E2%80%93Johnson_Tests_of_Cognitive_Abilities

Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wechsler_Individual_Achievement_Test 

(WRAT) http://www4.parinc.com/Products/Product.aspx?ProductID=WRAT4


ACTeRS - Retrieved from www.metritech.com/catalog_product.aspx?ID=1

Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scales - Adolescent Version. Retrieved from https://www.brownadhdclinic.com/brown-rating-scales

Connors' Rating Scales - 3rd Edition. Retrieved from https://storefront.mhs.com/collections/conners-3

Copeland Symptom Checklist for Attention Deficit Disorders - Child and Adolescent Version. Retrieved from http://addwarehouse.com/shopsite_sc/store/html/copeland-symptom-checklist-for-attention-deficit-disorders-in-child-and-adolescent.html

The Vanderbilt Assessment Scale. Retrieved from https://www.nichq.org/resource/nichq-vanderbilt-assessment-scales

Ward, M., Wender, P. & Reimherr, F. (1993).The Wender Utah Rating Scale: an aid in the retrospective diagnosis of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1993 Jun;150(6):885-90. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8494063 

Boon, R.(n.d.). Integrated Visual and Auditory (I.V.A.) Continuous Performance Test. Retrieved from http://www.angelfire.com/journal/ldps/IVA.htm

Conners, K. (2015). Conners CPT II Continuous Performance Test II. Retrieved from [link no longer available]. It is now the Conners CPT III Continuous Performance Test III.

Conners, K. (n.d.) Conners Kiddie CPT V.5. Retrieved from http://addwarehouse.com/shopsite_sc/store/html/conners-kiddie-cpt.html

Tinius, T. (2003). The Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test as a neuropsychological measure. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Volume 18, Issue 5, July 2003, Pages 439 - 454. Retrieved online March 26, 2015 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887617702001440

Intelligence Tests

The Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). The Weschler Intelligence Scales. Retrieved from http://www.iupui.edu/~flip/wechsler.html [no longer available at this site]

Stanford Binet. https://stanfordbinettest.com/

Memory Tests

Delis, D. C., Kaplan, E., Kramer, J. H., & Ober, B. A. (2000). California Verbal Learning Test - 2nd Edition - Adult Version (CVLT-2). Psychology Resource Centere - Hebblab. Retrieved from https://www.pearsonclinical.com/psychology/products/100000166/california-verbal-learning-test--second-edition-cvlt-ii.html 

Other Common Tests

(Cognitive Tempo) (2016). Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_Tempo

Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_Tempo

Tests of Attention

The TOVA Company (2015). Test of Variable Attention (TOVA). Retrieved from http://www.tovatest.com/

Trail-Making Test A&B (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trail_Making_Test

Weber, A., & Segalowitz, S. (2009). A measure of Children's attentional capacity. Attentional Capacity Test (ACT). Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/87565649009540446?journalCode=hdvn20

Tests of Executive Functioning

Boon, R. http://www.angelfire.com/journal/ldps/IVA.htm

Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wisconsin_Card_Sorting_Test

Biological differences

Brain Changes Mirror Symptoms in ADHD. (2006). Retrieved March 19, 2015 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2006/brain-changes-mirror-symptoms-in-adhd.shtml

Brain Matures a Few Years Late in ADHD, But Follows Normal Pattern.(2007). Retrieved June 14, 2018 from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/brain-matures-few-years-late-adhd-follows-normal-pattern

Tumolo, J. (2014). Low Brain Iron a Biomarker for ADHD. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from https://www.psychcongress.com/article/low-brain-iron-biomarker-adhd [Editor's Note: no longer available on the website]


Airov, T. (2016). Could an Unhealthy Prenatal Diet Lead to ADHD in Children? Retrieved from https://www.psychcongress.com/article/could-unhealthy-prenatal-diet-lead-adhd-children [Editor's Note: no longer available on the website]

Reuters Staff (2014). Air Pollution May Increase Childhood ADHD Problems. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from http://www.psychcongress.com/article/air-pollution-may-increase-childhood-adhd-problems [Editor's Note: no longer available on the website]

Choosing a Quality provider

APA Psychologist locator http://locator.apa.org/?_ga=1.251299524.372136160.1424564403

CHADD https://chadd.org/professional-directory/

The Joint Commission Accreditation Behavioral Health Care https://www.jointcommission.org/accreditation-and-certification/health-care-settings/behavioral-health-care/learn/our-standards/


Bawens, C. (n.d.) 5 Tips to Coach Your Teen to Ask for Help. Impact ADHD http://www.impactadhd.com/organize-your-life-and-family/5-tips-to-coach-your-teen-to-ask-for-help/

Maynard, S. (n.d.) Coaching the ADHD Child. ADDitude Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.additudemag.com/q%26a/ask_the_learning_expert/1342.html

Taylor-Klaus, E. (n.d.) How to Manage ADHD Effectively: 6 Fundamental Steps. ImpactADHD. Retrieved from https://impactadhd.com/treatment-for-complex-kids/how-to-manage-adhd-effectively-6-fundamental-steps/

Coexisting Conditions

ADHD and Coexisting Conditions. (n.d.). Retrieved from: https://chadd.org/about-adhd/coexisting-conditions/

ADHD and Depression. (n.d.). Retrieved from: https://chadd.org/about-adhd/depression/

ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorders. (n.d.). Retrieved from: https://chadd.org/about-adhd/disruptive-behavior-disorders/

ADHD, Sleep, and Sleep Disorders. (n.d.). Retrieved from: https://chadd.org/about-adhd/adhd-and-sleep-disorders/

ADHD, Tics, and Tourette Syndrome. (n.d.). Retrieved from: https://chadd.org/about-adhd/tics-and-tourette-syndrome/


Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Data and Statistics. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html

Coghill, D., Soutullo, C., d'Aubuisson, C., Preuss, U., Lindback, T., Silverberg, M., and Buitelaar, J. (2008). Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 2008. Electronic version. Retrieved from http://www.capmh.com/content/2/1/31#

Epidemiology, ADHD Institute: an educational platform developed and funded by Shire. http://www.adhd-institute.com/burden-of-adhd/epidemiology/

Faraone, S., Sergeant, J., Gillberg, C., and Biederman, J. (2003). The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: Is it an American Condition. World Psychiatry 2003 Jun v.2(2); 104 - 113. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525089/

Holland, K. & Riley, E. (2014). ADHD by the Numbers: Facts, Statistics, and You. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/adhd/facts-statistics-infographic#2


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ADHD) National Center Homepage. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/

DSM-5. American Psychiatric Publishing. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Retrieved from https://www.dsm5.org/Documents/ADHD%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf [Editor Note: no longer available]

Grohol, J. DSM-5 Changes: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (2013). Psych Central Retrieved June 6, 2015 https://www.psychcentral.com/pro/dsm-5-changes-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd

Kamentz, A. We're Thinking About ADHD All Wrong, Says A Top Pediatrician. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/01/04/459990844/were-thinking-about-adhd-all-wrong-says-a-top-pediatrician

Rubin, D. (2013). Attention Research Update. Retrieved from http://www.helpforadd.com/2013/june.htm

Spence, A. (n.d.). When and How to Have Your Child Evaluated for ADHD. Baby Center - Expert Advice. Retrieved from http://www.babycenter.com/0_when-and-how-to-have-your-child-evaluated-for-adhd_64983.bc

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Disruptive%20Mood%20Dysregulation%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

Drug Abuse

Brauser, Deborah (2013) Kids With ADHD at Increased Risk for Substance Abuse. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/779755

Brooke S., Molina, Hinshaw, P., Arnold, E., Swanson, J., Pelham, W., Hechtman, L., Hoza, B., Epstein, J., Wigal, T., Abikoff, H., Greenhill, L., Jensen, P., Wells, K., Vitiello, B., Gibbons, R., Howard, A., Houck, P., Hur, K., Lu, B., Marcus, S. (2013). Adolescent substance use in the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a function of childhood ADHD, random assignment to childhood treatments, and subsequent medication. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23452682

Levy, S., Katusic, S., Colligan, R., Weaver, A., Killian, J., Voigt, R., & Barbaresi, W. (2014). Childhood ADHD and Risk for Substance Dependence in Adulthood: A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study. PLoS ONE, 9(8), e105640. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105640. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4146503/

Wilens, M.D., Timothy E. (2004). Subtypes of ADHD Youth at Risk for Substance Abuse. Retrieved from http://archives.drugabuse.gov/meetings/apa/adhd.html

Executive Skills

Aron, A. (2008). Progress in executive-functioning research: From tasks to functions to regions to networks. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 17 (2), 124-129

Child Mind Institute, Understood Founding Partner. What's the Difference Between Executive Functioning Issues and ADHD? Retrieved from https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-disabilities/executive-functioning-issues/difference-between-executive-functioning-issues-and-adhd

Cooper-Kahn, J. and Dietzel, L. (2008) Late, Lost, and Unprepared: A Parents' Guide to Helping Children with Executive Function. Bethesda: Woodbine House.

Barkley, R. (n.d.) The Important Role of Executive Function and Self-Regulation in ADHD. Retrieved from http://www.russellbarkley.org/factsheets/ADHD_EF_and_SR.pdf


Burden of ADHD: Aetiology (2015). Retrieved from http://www.adhd-institute.com/burden-of-adhd/aetiology/heritability/

Causes of ADHD. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.myadhd.com/causesofadhd.html#heredity

Martin, N., Scourfield, J, and McGuffin, P. (2002). Observer effects and heritability of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms The British Journal of Psychiatry, Mar 2002, 180 (3) 260-265. Retrieved from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/180/3/260

Legal rights

Guidelines for Educators and Administrators for Implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 - Subpart D. (2010). U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. Retrieved on December 28, 2020 from https://saom.memberclicks.net/assets/MACSS/MACSS_Conferences/guidelines%20for%20implementing%20504.pdf


Bailey, E. (n.d.). 6 Things You Should Know about ADHD Medication. Retrieved from https://healthcentral.com/slideshow/6-things-you-should-know-about-adhd-medication [Editor's Note: No longer available at this link]

About Prescribing Psychologists. (n.d.). American Psychological Association. Retrieved from https://www.apaservices.org/practice/advocacy/authority/prescribing-psychologists

Child Mind Institute. What we Know About the Long-term Effects of ADHD Medications and What We Don't. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://childmind.org/article/know-long-term-effects-adhd-medications/

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/stimulant-adhd-medications-methylphenidate-amphetamines [no longer available]

RX List: The Internet Drug Index (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.rxlist.com/script/main/hp.asp


Essentials for Parenting Toddlers and Preschoolers. This is a website created by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention designed for parents to learn and practice parenting skills. This site is extremely useful but does not specifically target parents of children with ADHD. http://www.cdc.gov/parents/essentials/

Web MD. Tips to Help Your Child with ADHD Behave http://www.webmd.com/children/adhd-and-your-child-6/behavioral-therapy

Positive Aspects of ADHD

Marner, K. (n.d.) ADHD Positives: Helping Children Embrace Their Differences. Retrieved from http://www.additudemag.com/adhdblogs/4/8804.html

Preschoolers Tynan, PhD, Doug (2015). ADHD in Preschoolers: Overmedicated and Undertreated. Retrieved from https://psychologybenefits.org/2015/05/07/adhd-in-preschoolers-overmedicated-and-undertreated/


Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/research.html

The ADHD Awareness Coalition: Impact Of ADHD at Work And School, and Prevalence of Associated Conditions Revealed in New Survey. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.adhdawarenessmonth.org/new-survey-results/

Social and Economic Burden of ADHD through lifespan

Coghill, D., Soutullo, C., d'Aubuisson, C., Preuss, U., Lindback, T., Silverberg, M., and Buitelaar, J. (2008). Impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on the patient and family: results from a European survey. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2008, http://www.capmh.com/content/2/1/31

Teen Issues

ADHD, Teens and Young Adults. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://chadd.org/for-parents/teens-and-young-adults/

Gene Predicts Better Outcome as Cortex Normalizes in Teens with ADHD. (2007). National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/gene-predicts-better-outcome-cortex-normalizes-teens-adhd

Jacobson, R. (n.d.). How to Help Kids with ADHD Drive Safely. Child Mind Institute. Retrieved from https://childmind.org/article/how-to-help-kids-with-adhd-drive-safely/

Lee, R. (n.d.). Are there any colleges with good services for kids with ADHD? Child Mind Institute. Retrieved from https://childmind.org/article/are-there-any-colleges-with-good-services-for-kids-with-adhd/

Patino, E. (2014). Resources for Parents of At-Risk Teens. Understood: for Learning and Attention Issues. Retrieved from https://www.understood.org/en/friends-feelings/teens-tweens/risky-behavior/resources-for-parents-of-at-risk-teens [link no longer available]

Rooney, M. (n.d.). How to Help Kids Handle the New Challenges and Expectations of High School. Child Mind Institute. Retrieved from http://www.childmind.org/en/posts/articles/2013-1-7-adhd-teenagers [Editor's Note: no longer available]

Rooney, M. (n.d.). 10 Tips for Going to College with ADHD. Child Mind Institute. Retrieved from https://childmind.org/article/10-tips-going-college-adhd/

Treatment Options

Boggs, W. (2014). ADHD Care Falls Short Evidence-Based Standards. Retrieved March 20, 2015 from https://www.psychcongress.com/article/adhd-care-falls-short-evidence-based-standards [Editor's Note: no longer available on website]


Hilton, S. (2016). Study highlights what helps, doesn't help ADHD kids with homework. Retrieved from http://www.contemporarypediatrics.com/modern-medicine-feature-articles/study-highlights-what-helps-doesnt-help-adhd-kids-homework

My Child Has Been Diagnosed with ADHD - Now What? (n.d.). Center for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/treatment.html

Psychosocial Treatment for Children and Adolescents. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://chadd.org/for-parents/treatment-overview/

Summary of the Multimodal Study. (1999). Archives of General Psychiatry http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10591283

The Multimodal Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Study (MTA): Questions and Answers. (n.d.). National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/funding/clinical-research/practical/mta/the-multimodal-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-study-mta-questions-and-answers.shtml [Editor's Note: No longer available]